Name(s) of Investigator(s)

Project Title



Dr. C. M. Narayan & (Late) Dr. B. C. Bhattacharya, IIT, Kharagpur

Design, Construction and Analysis of Variable Area Heat Exchangers (VAEs).

VAEs employ diverging-converging tubes/pipes. Heat transfer coefficient in Variable Area double pipe/Shell and Tube exchangers is 3.5 to 4.0 times that in conventional exchangers of same heat transfer area. The pressure drop is only 18-20 % higher.


Design, Construction and Analysis of Falling Film Absorbers of Diverging-Converging Geometry.

Same as above. Provide 3.5 to 4.0 times higher mass transfer/heat transfer coefficients, with relatively insignificant increase in pressure drop penalty.


Design, Construction and Analysis of Variable Area Condensers, Thin Film Evaporators

Same as above


Design and Analysis of Solar Parabolic Trough Concentrator (PTC) with Variable Area Absorber

Performance efficiency of PTC is 50% higher, with little increase in its operating cost. This is true even if a high boiling liquid such as dowtherm is used as working fluid and it executes laminar flow through absorber.


Dr. C. M. Narayan

Design and Analysis of Aerobic Bioreactor (suspended Growth) with Step feeding

Provides improved performance when employed in Activated Sludge processes.


Dr. C. M. Narayan

Recovery of Titanium From Coal Ash Using Liquid Membrane Technology.

Low cost, low energy process. Permits selective recovery of titanium as pure titanium sulfate.


Dr. C. M. Narayan & Vikas Narayan

Design and Analysis (including Software Development) of Fluidised Bed Bioreactors with LPO (Liquid Phase Oxygen) Utilisation

Reactor operates without use of huge air compressors, more economical. System reduces to a liquid fluidized bed.


Dr. C. M. Narayan

Synthesis of Biodiesel Using Immobilized Enzyme(Lipase) Fluidized Bed Bioreactors.

Production of uncontaminated biodiesel at economically large rates.


Dr. C. M. Narayan

Design and Analysis(including Software development) of Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket(UASB) Bioreactors

Multiparameter software considering all system parameters including axial dispersion, effectiveness factors, gas velocity variation.


Dr. C. M. Narayan

Biodesulfurisation of Petroleum Oils using Fluidised Bed Biofilm/Immobilized Cell Bioreactors

More economical than conventional hydrodesulfurisation. No high temperature, no high pressure, no consumption of hydrogen gas, S-content recovered as sulfate in solution.


Dr. C. M. Narayan

Production of Phosphate?rich Biofertiliser(PROM) from Phosphate Rock - Kinetic study.

PROM is produced biochemically from rock phosphate ore and anaerobic digestor sludge/vermicompost. More economical than synthetic phosphatic fertilizers. Equally efficient in soil.


Dr. C. M. Narayan

Design and Analysis of Anaerobic Downflow Stationary Fixed Film(DSFF) Bioreactors (for waste water Treatment).

Well-tested multiparameter software without any simplifying assumptions. Multiple substrates considered.


Dr. C. M. Narayan

Production of Food-Grade Protein Concentrate from Cheese Whey using Ultrafiltration Module of Improved Design

Higher yield, faster process, uncontaminated protein concentrate with little denaturation.


Dr. C. M. Narayan

Design and Analysis of Circulating Fluidised Bed Bioreactors employing Immobilised Enzyme Nanoparticles.

Provides improved performance than conventional fluidized beds.


Dr. C.M. Narayan

Novel Design of Inverse Fluidized Bed Bioreactor with Nanosilica Support Particles

The proposed design provides high bioconversion at high capacities with reasonably low reactor volume. The operating cost of the reactor also is quite low.


Dr. C. M. Narayan

Computer Aided Design and Analysis of Semifluidized Bed Biofilm Reactors for Aerobic Waste Water Treatment with LPO ( Liquid Phase Oxygen )Utilization

Provides high BOD removal, no air compressors required, lower operating cost, well-tested CAD software available for design and installation.


Dr. C. M. Narayan

Computer Aided Design of  Regenerators ( Heat Recovery Systems ) for High Temperature Industrial Applications


Permits efficient design of regenerators and enhanced heat recovery and consequent energy conservation.


Dr. C. M. Narayan

Synthesis of  Polymer grade Lactic Acid from Molasses and Cheese Whey in

(a)               Fluidized bed biofilm reactors

(b)               Semi-Fluidized bed biofilm reactors

(c)                    Inverse Fluidized bed biofilm reactors

(d)               Downflow Stationary Fixed Film ( DSFF ) bioreactors

Permits economical manufacture of lactic acid on commercial scale from waste effluents. Economical Manufacture of PLLA bioplastic  becomes thus feasible and its market price would get reduced significantly. Well-tested  CAD Software packages  developed.


Dr. C. M. Narayan

Synthesis of Biodiesel from

(a)   Algal oil & methanol

(b)   Neem oil & methyl acetate

 using immobilized lipase enzyme in

a)      Fluidized Bed Bioreactors

b)      Semifluidized Bed Bioreactors

c)      Fluidized Bed Bioreactors of Diverging- Converging Geometry


All the three types of bioreactors provide more than 80 percent conversion of algal oil/ neem oil within a low reactor volume. Well-tested CAD (software) packages have been developed for design and analysis of these bioreactors. Prospects of commercial adaptation excellent.



Dr. C. M. Narayan

Design and Analysis of Three phase (Gas-Liquid-Solid) Semifluidized Bed Bioreactors for Biological Treatment of  Industrial  Effluents/ Waste water.

Operate at much higher flow rates than fluidized bed bioreactors, but reactor volume requirement is much lower.  Provides high BOD  removal ( more than 85 per cent ) at high capacities. CAD Software successfully developed.



Dr. C. M. Narayan

Biodiesel synthesis in Inverse Fluidized Bed Bioreactors employing Immobilised Enzyme Nano-Silica Particles (from algal oil/ neem oil)

Lower operating cost due to downwflow mode of operation, high global rate of reaction since effectiveness factor is equal to unity (due the very small size and very large specific surface of nanoparticles).Well tested CAD package developed.


Software Development

We have developed well-tested Software Packages (CAD Packages) for the Computer Aided Design of

    1. Shell and Tube HEs
    2. Plate HEs
    3. Finned Double Pipe HEs
  2. CONDENSERS (Horizontal/Vertical; Single/Mixed Vapors)
  3. EVAPORATORS (Single Effect; Multiple Effect)
  4. PACKED BED ABSORPTION COLUMNS(with/without chemical reaction)
  6. MULTICOMPONENT DISTILLATION SYSTEMS(using most rigorous numerical algorithms)
  9. PRESSURE VESSELS (Short/Tall Vessels, with Skirt, Lug, Saddle Supports).
  10. BIOREACTORS ( Packed Bed, Fluidized Bed, UASB Bioreactors )

The above Softwares have been successfully implemented in many process industries of India and abroad.

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